Etiket arşivi: ARAŞTIRMA DOSYASI

ARAŞTIRMA DOSYASI /// E. TÜMG. ARMAĞAN KULOĞLU : Teröre tepkideki çifte standart

Armağan KULOĞLU

oakuloglu

Terör olayları yurt içinde ve dışında devam etmekte, ancak teröre karşı tepkiler ülkeye ve niteliğine göre farklılık göstermekte, bir kısmına ise hiç tepki verilmemektedir.

Ülkeye göre farklılık

Paris’te terör saldırısı olduğunda birçok ülke buna tepki göstermiş, devlet/hükümet başkanları veya üst düzey temsilciler Paris’te bir dayanışma yürüyüşü de yaparak, yas ilan ederek veya değişik etkinliklerle teröre karşı dayanışma göstermişlerdir.

Buna benzer şekilde Brüksel’deki terör karşısında da, özellikle Avrupa ülkeleri, aynı şekilde dayanışma içinde olmuş, tarihi ve meşhur yerler Belçika bayrağının renginde ışıklandırılarak teröre karşı destek mesajları verilmiştir. Hatta B.A.E. Dubai’de dahi Belçika’ya destek için ışıklandırma yapıldığına şahit olunmuştur.

Ancak Avrupa’daki teröre karşı dayanışma gösteren ve tepki veren ülkeler, buna benzer Suruç, Ankara Gar, Merasim Sokak, Kızılay’da meydana gelen terör olaylarında, Saray Bosna hariç, benzer tepkiyi göstermemişlerdir. Hatta yere göğe sığdıramadığımız Araplardan bile etkili bir tepki görülmemiştir.

Batılı ülkeler Türkiye’de, PKK/PYD’nin gerçekleştirdiği terör olaylarına karşı bir tepki vermediği gibi, onlara ülkelerinde müsamaha göstermişler, hata onları müttefik ilan etmişlerdir. Üstelik onlarla mücadele edilmemesini, pazarlık masasına oturulmasını dahi ifade etmekten çekinmemişlerdir.

Bunlar, "senin benim terör ve teröristim" ayırımının yapıldığını gösteren en belirgin örneklerdir. Tamamen bir çifte standarttır. Ülkeler ancak terör kendilerini vurduğunda duyarlık göstermekte, etkisi geçtiğinde yine bilinen düşüncelerine dönmektedirler.

Bütün ülkeler, terörün küresel olduğu, milliyetinin, mensubiyetinin ve vatanının olmadığı, kendilerini de vuracağı bilinci içinde olmalıdır. Ancak şimdilik gerçeği gördükleri, hissettikleri ve dayanışma içinde hareket edilmesi gerektiğini anlamış gibi görünmektedirler. Fakat bunun ne kadar devam edeceği bilinememektedir. Bazı ülkeler kendisinden başkasını düşünmemektedir. Nitekim son terör olayından sonra bir ülkenin, ülkesine mülteci almayacağını açıklaması bunu göstermiştir.

Olaya göre farklılık

Bir diğer konu da ülkemizdeki, yani içimizdeki çifte standarttır. Bu da mücadelede şehit olan güvenlik gücü mensuplarıyla, terörde ölen siviller arasında ayırım yapılmasıdır. Sivillerin ölümü infial yaratmakta, askerlerin ve Emniyet mensuplarının şehit olması sıradan karşılanmaktadır. Sivillerin ölümü kınanmakta, güvenlik güçlerinin şahadetine ses çıkmamaktadır.

Gazetelerde, televizyonlarda dahi sivil ölümlerinin olduğu terör olayları manşet olmakta, her gün birkaç şehit vermemiz medyada fazla yer almamaktadır. Artık şehit haberleri kanıksanmış, olağan hale gelmiş durumdadır. Sadece şehit cenazelerinin olduğu yerde acı paylaşılmakta, ancak ülke çapında tepki gösterilmemektedir.

Son olayların başlamasından, yani terörle mücadele edilmesi gerektiğinin geç de olsa anlaşılmasından sonra 400’e yakın şehit verdiğimiz gözden uzak tutulmamalıdır. Vatan ve Türk Milleti uğruna verilen şehitlerle her gün ocaklara ateş düşmektedir.

Bunun önemi ve değeri hiçbir şeyle kıyaslanamaz. Mücadeleye, şehit olabileceğini bilerek girişen bu kahramanların hakkı ödenemez.

Terörde ölen siviller masum da, teröristle mücadelede veya terörist etkisiyle şehit olanlar masum değil midir? Hepsi masumdur. Hepsi kutsaldır. Ancak bu çifte standarda son verilmeli, şehitlerimiz için de ülke çapında tepki gösterilmeli ve terör kınanmalıdır.

Hepimiz Türk’üz

Olaylar karşısında, hepimiz Fransız/Ermeni/Belçikalı vb. oluyoruz da, neden şehitlerimiz için "Hepimiz Türk’üz" diye bir dayanışma ve tepki göstermiyoruz? Neden "teröre lanet, şehitlerimize rahmet, birlik ve bütünlük" mitingleri veya yürüyüşleri düzenlemiyoruz?

Artık ülkemizde siyasi hesaplar bir taraf bırakılmalı, hâlâ devam eden "sen ben" ayırımına son verilerek kutuplaşmanın önüne geçilmeli, siyasi ranta ve hevese dönük tali konular yerine asıl sorunlarımıza odaklanılmalıdır.

26.03.2016

ARAŞTIRMA DOSYASI : Benghazi Attack, 9/11/2012

Image: TOPSHOTS-LIBYA-UNREST-US

Introduction

On September 11, 2012 in Libya, a heavily armed group executed an attack on the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi. The attack began at night in a U.S. diplomatic compound for the consulate, and ended at another diplomatic compound nearby where the U.S. intelligence was posted. Killed were U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and three other members of his diplomatic mission, U.S. Foreign Service Information Management Officer Sean Smith and U.S. embassy security personnel Glen Doherty and Tyrone Woods. Two other Americans and seven Libyans were also injured. The Benghazi attack was strongly condemned by the governments of Libya, the United States and other countries around the world.

Libyans held demonstrations in Benghazi and Tripoli, condemning the violence and holding signs such as, “Chris Stevens was a friend to all Libyans”, and apologizing to Americans for the actions in their name and in the name of Muslims. On September 21, about 30,000 Libyans protested against armed militias in their country including Ansar al-Sharia, an Islamist militia alleged to have played a role in the attack, and stormed several militia headquarters, forcing the occupants to flee. On September 23, the Libyan president ordered that all unauthorized militias either disband or come under government control. Militias across the country began surrendering to the government and submitting to its authority. Hundreds of Libyans gathered in Tripoli and Benghazi to hand over their weapons to the government.

The attack followed the mobbing of the U.S. embassy in Cairo, Egypt, which was in reaction to the anti-Islamic film Innocence of Muslims. On September 28, U.S. intelligence revised their initial assessment to indicate that it “was a deliberate and organized terrorist attack carried out by extremists”. Questions about whether the White House should have stated or did state this conclusion earlier and whether the site of the assault was adequately secured before and after the attack created political controversy during the US 2012 Presidential election then underway. The United States investigation of the attack is being conducted separately by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the State Department, the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Source: Wikipedia

Note from The Black Vault: I have filed FOIA requests to multiple agencies regarding this attack. I am still awaiting additional records responsive to the attack, but have included the below records from my archives for research.

FOIA Search for Documents on Benghazi

The following are documents received under the FOIA regarding Benghazi. I still have MULTIPLE requests still open and being processed, and they will be made available here when I get them.

Did the U.S. Government receive warnings of a threat on 9/11/12?

pdf.gifFBI Response to FOIA request for all warnings / threats of terrorism on or around 9/11/12 [ 5 Pages, 1MB ] – The FBI found 72 pages of responsive records to this search, but each of them were classified and exempt from release. Could these pages potentially show the Obama Administration was negligent and ignored warnings of a terrorist attack on 9/11/12?

pdf.gifFBI Response to FOIA request for all warnings / threats of terrorism on or around 9/11/12, on documents originating with a “Other Government Agency” [ 3 Pages, 0.2MB ] – The FBI had sent 4 pages to a “Other Government Agency” that was responsible for the documents. They determined that these, as well, were entirely classified and exempt from release.

pdf.gifCIA Response to FOIA request for all warnings / threats of terrorism on or around 9/11/12 [ 2 Pages, 0.2MB ] – The CIA responded on behalf of the Department of State, when they found multiple pages responsive to my request. The CIA says that each document is classified, and exempt from release.

Other FOIA Documents

pdf.gifDoD Response for Records [2 Pages, 0.6mb]

pdf.gifState Department “Rapid Response: Hot Topics” Newsletter for the month of September 2012 [ 37 Pages, 1.6MB ] – These newsletters are issued daily by the State Department, and circulated internally. I requested the entire month of September 2012 to show the days leading up to and following the Benghazi attack.

pdf.gifFBI Response to FOIA request for all transcripts from interviews with Benghazi survivors [4 Pages, 2.35MB] –

pdf.gifBenghazi “Talking Point” Timeline revisions [8 Pages, 1.7mb] – This document, released by ABC News, shows the different versions of the “talking points” relating to Benghazi. There is a drastic change over the course of 12 revisions.

pdf.gifBenghazi “Talking Point” Revision — Emails from the White House, released April 2014 [113 Pages, 43.76mb] – These records come from my friends over at Judicial Watch, who do great work obtaining hard to get documents. To quote FoxNews on their release, “Newly released emails on the Benghazi terror attack suggest a senior White House aide played a central role in preparing former U.N. ambassador Susan Rice for her controversial Sunday show appearances — where she wrongly blamed protests over an Internet video.”

pdf.gifBenghazi “Talking Point” Revision — Emails from the DNI, State Dept. CIA and others [100 Pages, 36.71mb] – These pages were released to The Black Vault from the Director of National Intelligence in a request for all emails pertaining to the “talking points” and how they were revised behind the scenes before Susan Rice and others used them in the days after the attack. Very interesting to see what went into it, and how they knew from the start the bullet point about it being over a protest would be an issue. You will also see where the information about the “warnings” given PRIOR to 9/11/12, along with the terrorist ties, were completely cut out of the final version.

pdf.gifBenghazi Attack Scene Photos [8 Pages, 1.6mb] – Thanks to my friends over at Judicial Watch, photos from the scene of the Benghazi attack were released under the FOIA after originally being deemed classified, and exempt from disclosure under FOIA exemption (b)(7). These are the first photos to have been officially released from the scene of the Benghazi attack.

pdf.gifFBI Response for Benghazi “threats” towards the consulate, or to the US on or around 9/11/12 [3 Pages, 1.02MB] – In a search for records relating to a threat towards either the United States, or the Benghazi consulate, I filed a FOIA request to the FBI for records relating to anything that may indicate we had prior knowledge that an attack was imminent around 9/11/12. The response? FOIA exemption (b)(7) – law enforcement information, which if released, would interfere with an ongoing proceeding.

pdf.gifWhite House Releases Emails Regarding Benghazi [100 Pages, 29.12mb] – On 5/15/2013, The White House released 100 pages of emails regarding the ‘talking points’ that would be discussed in the days that followed the attack in Benghazi. Up until this date, the White House refused to release them to congressional investigators.

pdf.gifBlue Mountain Group (BMG) Security Firm Repeatedly Abandoned Their Posts in Benghazi due to “fear” for their safety [ 130 Pages, 39.28MB ] – On September 10th, 2014, Judicial Watch announced that it had obtained 130 pages of new State Department documents revealing that local security guards working for Blue Mountain Group (BMG), the firm hired to protect the U.S. Special Mission in Benghazi, repeatedly abandoned their posts “out of fear of their safety” in the months leading up to the deadly terrorist attack on the special mission compound. Source and special thanks: Judicial Watch

Senate Intelligence Committee Releases Declassified Bipartisan Report on Benghazi Terrorist Attacks

Published 1/15/2014

pdf.gifRead the Report [85 Pages, 5.67MB]

U.S. House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

The House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (“HPSCI” or “the Committee”) conducted a comprehensive and exhaustive investigation into the tragic attacks against two U.S. facilities in Benghazi, Libya on September 11-12, 2012. The nearly two-year investigation focused on the activities of the Intelligence Community (“IC”) before, during, and after the attacks. During the course of thousands of hours of detailed investigation, HPSCI reviewed thousands of pages of intelligence assessments, cables, notes, and emails; held 20 Committee events and hearings; and conducted detailed interviews with senior intelligence officials and eyewitnesses to the attacks, including eight security personnel on the ground in Benghazi that night.

Published 11/21/2014

pdf.gifRead the Report [37 Pages, 2.5MB]

Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Releases Report on DOD Response to Benghazi

Published 2/11/2014

WASHINGTON – The House Armed Services Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations released a comprehensive report today evaluating the response of the Department of Defense (DOD) to the terrorist attack in Benghazi, Libya on September 11, 2012. Read the Report

To undertake the committee’s review, Chairman Howard P. “Buck” McKeon directed the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations to work alongside the full committee. As a result, this report expresses the views of Chairman McKeon, Vice Chairman Mac Thornberry, Rep. Martha Roby (who was the chairman of the Oversight and Investigations subcommittee until December 2013), and the five majority members of that subcommittee.

To date, committee staff has reviewed thousands of pages of written material (including classified emails and situation reports) made available by DOD. Staff has also held three classified staff briefings, and two classified interviews. Members have participated in two open hearings, and seven additional classified briefings. In undertaking this work, the committee has met with and received information from military personnel in the entire chain of command in connection with Benghazi: from those on the ground at the time of the attack to the nation’s senior-most uniformed leader.

While the committee’s inquiry continues, the majority members believe that information gathered to date reaffirm the relevant findings in the Interim Progress Report for the Members of the Republican Conference on the Events Surrounding the September 11, 2012 Terrorist Attack in Benghazi, Libya issued in April 2013 by the five committees with jurisdiction in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Based on its activities undertaken since the release of that report, majority members make the six findings listed below:

pdf.gifRead the Report [31 Pages, 0.4MB]

Documents about the Benghazi Aftermath

The following are documents received under the FOIA regarding Benghazi, and the aftermath in the days, weeks and months after the attack.

  • pdf.gifCorrespondence Between Office of the Director of National Intelligence and Members of Congress, 09/01/2012 – 12/31/2012, Released March 2015 [47 Pages, 17.3MB]
  • pdf.gifDirector of National Intelligence E-Mails Regarding Benghazi, Released December of 2015 [26 Pages, 3.5MB] – After being told there were no documents relating to my request for correspondence to or from the consulate in Benghazi. After appealing their decision, I was asked to withdraw it, and they would do another search for responsive records. As a result, there were responsive records, and they were redacted and released. This is another example of being told one thing, but after pushing and excersizing my appeal rights, there is another picture that unfolds.
  • pdf.gifA Trainee Demand Analysis for the Expansion of the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group, March 2013, Master’s Thesis [95 Pages, 4.54mb] – On September 11, 2012, the U.S. Consulate in Benghazi, Libya, was attacked, resulting in the death of four United States citizens, including Ambassador Christopher Stevens. Prior to Bengazi, the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group (MCESG) held a total strength of about 1,400 Marines, of which 1,196 were Marine Security Guards (MSG). In response to the deadly attack, Congress authorized 1,000 new MSGs through the 2013 National Defense Authorization Act, creating additional protection for U.S. diplomatic facilities worldwide. This thesis examines the growth requirements needed to support MCESG’s expansion demands to produce MSGs at maximum capacity in the coming three to four years. The study analyzes trainee demands, proposing a methodology to assist MCESG operation personnel plans for expansion and future force sustainment. The proposed methodology is founded on an Excel-based analytical approach that relies heavily on simulation and is interfaced through a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) UserForm. The model is easily manipulated, as operational needs dictate. Once developed, VBA UserForm is a simple and effective tool that can assist planners in standardizing procedures at the operational level. Research-based analysis indicates that the proposed methodology could yield significant savings in terms of manpower and training requirements for MCESG.
  • pdf.gifCTC Sentinel – Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2013 [25 Pages, 1.51MB] – Islamist Militant Groups in Post-Qadhafi Libya.

Declassified Transcripts of Benghazi Briefings Released

January 13th, 2014 – The House Armed Services Committee today released a series of recently declassified transcripts of briefings on the September 11th 2012 attack on Americans in Benghazi, Libya. The briefings were conducted by the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations then chaired by Rep. Martha Roby (R-AL), though they were open to all members of the Committee and attended by Members off the Committee. The briefings, which took place over the course of several months, were part of the Committee’s examination of the actions of the military chain of command before, during, and after the attack. A report summarizing the conclusion of the HASC Oversight & Investigations majority Members draw from these briefings is expected to be released later this week.

· pdf.gif Transcript #1

1_Briefing transcript (redacted), “DOD’s preparation for the terrorist attacks in Benghazi,” (Part I, Session I, DOD), May 21, 2013.pdf (3.7 MBs)

· pdf.gif Transcript #2

2_Briefing transcript (redacted), “DOD’s preparation for the terrorist attacks in Benghazi,” (Part I, Session II DOD), May 21, 2013.pdf (642.4 KBs)

· pdf.gif Transcript #3

3_Briefing transcript (redacted), “DOD’s preparation for the terrorist attacks in Benghazi,” (Part II, AFRICOM), June 26, 2013.pdf (9.2 MBs)

· pdf.gif Transcript #4

4_Briefing transcript (redacted), “DOD’s preparation for the terrorist attacks in Benghazi,” (Part III, Colonel Bristol), July 31, 2013.pdf (10.8 MBs)

· pdf.gif Transcript #5

5_Hearing transcript, “DOD’s posture for September 11, 2013,” (Part IV, Force Posture), September 19, 2013.pdf (691.9 KBs)

· pdf.gif Transcript #6

6_Briefing transcript (redacted), “DOD’s force posture in anticipation of September 11, 2012,” (Part V, General Dempsey), October 10, 2013.pdf (2.3 MBs)

Progress Report on Benghazi Terror Attack Investigation

Last year, Speaker John Boehner asked the House committees on Armed Services, Foreign Affairs, Intelligence, Judiciary, and Oversight & Government Reform to investigate the terrorist attack in Benghazi, Libya that killed four Americans. On 4/23/13, these five committees released their progress report, which outlines their findings and the next steps in the investigation.

Timeline of Documents and Events Relating to the Benghazi Attack

1. pdf.gif8/27/12 – Travel Warning, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Bureau of Consular Affairs, in regards to Libya [2 Pages, 113kb] – Specifically mentions Benghazi with increased violence.

2. pdf.gif9/11/12 – Statement on the Attack in Benghazi, Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State, Department of State [1 Page, 90kb] – Blames internet video for attack. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

3. pdf.gif9/12/12 – Statement by the President on the Attack in Benghazi [1 Page, 96kb] – Written Statement released by the President. No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

4. 9/12/12 – Statement by the President on the Attack in Benghazi, Rose Garden Speech [Video] – No mention of “terror” or “terrorism” in relation to Benghazi. Says “No acts of terror will ever shake the resolve on this great nation…” at the end of the speech, however, he was speaking about the 9/11/01 attacks, and his visits to victims and family members.

5. pdf.gif9/12/12 – Remarks on the Deaths of American Personnel in Benghazi, Libya, Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State, Department of State [3 Pages, 90kb] – The video of this speech, is below in the Video Archive. Blames internet video for attack. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

6. pdf.gif9/12/12 – Press Statement on the Deaths of American Personnel in Benghazi, Libya, Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State, Department of State [2 Pages, 101kb]-
Blames internet video for attack. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

7. pdf.gif9/12/12 – Remarks on the Deaths of American Personnel in Benghazi, Libya, Susan Rice, U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations , U.S. Mission to the United Nations, Department of State [3 Pages, 98kb] –Blames internet video for attack. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

8. pdf.gif9/12/12 – Briefing by Senior Administration Officials to Update Recent Events in Libya [3 Pages, 98kb] – Will not answer if internet video was cause of attack. Will not answer if there is a “terrorism” link.

9. pdf.gif9/13/12 – State Department Daily Press Briefing [21 Pages, 180kb] – Confirms blaming internet video for attack. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

10.pdf.gif9/13/12 – Statement on the Deaths of Tyrone S. Woods and Glen A. Doherty in Benghazi, Libya, Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State, Department of State [2 Pages, 101kb]- No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

11.pdf.gif9/14/12 – Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jay Carney [17 Pages, 166kb] Blames internet video as attack. Denies any “concrete evidence” of a “terror” link that would show “[the attack] to not being in response to the film.”

12.pdf.gif9/14/12 – Remarks at the Transfer of Remains Ceremony to Honor Those Lost in Attacks in Benghazi, Libya, Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State [3 Pages, 99kb] Blames internet video as attack. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

13.pdf.gif9/14/12 – Remarks at the Transfer of Remains Ceremony to Honor Those Lost in Attacks in Benghazi, Libya, President Barack Obama [2 Pages, 125kb]- No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

14.pdf.gif10/09/12 – Background Briefing on Libya [13 Pages, 140kb]-
Said video was not their conclusion for attack..No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

15.pdf.gif10/10/12 – On-The-Record Briefing by Under Secretary Kennedy [4 Pages, 110kb] – WATCH VIDEO – No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

16.pdf.gif10/12/12 – Hearing on Benghazi Security Issues, Testimony Before the House Oversight Subcommittee, Patrick Kennedy, Under Secretary for Management [4 Pages, 108kb]- No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

17.pdf.gif10/12/12 – Hearing on Benghazi Security Issues, Testimony Before the House Oversight Subcommittee, Charlene Lamb, Deputy Assistant, Secretary of State [8 Pages, 124kb] – No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

18.pdf.gif10/12/12 – Hearing on Benghazi Security Issues, Prepared Statement Before the House Oversight Subcommittee, Eric Allan Nordstrom, Regional Security Officer, Tripoli, Libya from September 21, 2011-July 26, 2012 [12 Pages, 191kb]-
No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

19.pdf.gif10/15/12 – Interview With Margaret Brennan of CBS, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State [4 Pages, 108kb] -No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

20.pdf.gif11/09/12 – Daily Press Briefing, Victoria Nuland, Spokesperson [19 Pages, 190kb]- No mention of video. No mention of “terror” or “terrorism”

Flashing Red: A Special Report on the Terrorist Attack At Benghazi (Official Senate Report)

1. pdf.gifFlashing Red: A Special Report on the Terrorist Attack At Benghazi [31 Pages, 0.4mb] – While our country spent September 11, 2012, remembering the terrorist attacks that took place 11 years earlier, brave Americans posted at U.S. government facilities in Benghazi, Libya, were fighting for their lives against a terrorist assault. When the fight ended, U.S. Ambassador to Libya John C. (Chris) Stevens and three other Americans were dead and U.S. facilities in Benghazi were left in ruin. We must remember the sacrifice that these selfless public servants made to support the struggle for freedom in Libya and to improve our own national security. While we mourn their deaths, it is also crucial that we learn from how they died. By examining the circumstances of the attack in Benghazi on September 11th, we hope to gain a better understanding of what went wrong and what we must do now to ensure better protection for American diplomatic personnel who must sometimes operate in dangerous places abroad.

Historical government records, detailing the highly volatile situation in Libya and Benghazi

1. pdf.gifAmerica Strikes Back, April 1987 [44 Pages, 16.53mb] – After repeated warnings from the United States government, elements of the U.S. Sixth Fleet and the USAF bombed targets in and around the Libyan cities of Benghazi and Tripoli on 14 April 1986. The attack came in retaliation to several Libyan sponsored terrorist attacks on U.S. concerns in the weeks preceding. This paper examines the effects of the bombing as a deterrent of future terrorist attacks and further examines current and projected U.S. counterterrorist policies.

2. pdf.gifConflict with Libya: Use of Military Force Against Terrorism, 8 Feb 1994 [30 Pages, 1.1mb] – The United States attack on Libya on April 15, 1986 was the culmination of a series of developments in U.S. foreign policy and military strategy intended to combat international terrorism. It was the culmination of the U.S. attempt to use both non- military and military methods to combat terrorism. This paper examines the use of military force as an appropriate means to combat terrorism. In particular, the 1986 conflict with Libya is examined concentrating on the following aspects: whether operational level objectives contributed to achievement of strategic goals; and the use of military force as an effective instrument in the war against terrorism. This paper concludes that the use of military force (along with the European non- military responses) was an effective instrument in the war against terrorism as measured by the decrease in Libyan sponsored attacks from 1986 to 1991. However, the U.S. attack on Libya is still an isolated event and does not provide a sufficient basis for a doctrine of military retaliation against terrorism.

3. pdf.gifDeterring Libya: The Strategic Culture of Muammar Qaddafi, October 2000 [31 Pages, 0.2mb] – In September of 1969, Muammar al-Qaddafi then a virtually unknown army officer in his late twenties rose to the leadership of Libya. Armed with a vision of Arab unity and anti-colonialism, he led a small group of his fellow officers who called themselves the Free Officers Movement. In a virtually bloodless coup, they ousted the aging (and absent) King Idris Al-Sanusi and established Libya as a republic. During the 30 years since, Qaddafi has emerged as a charismatic and complicated leader. Considered by Westerners to be bizarre and irrational, he has been branded a terrorist and a rogue. Among some of his fellow Arabs, he is praised as a virulent anti-Zionist and anti-imperialist, while others condemn him as a plotter and an adventurer whose zealous pursuit of Arab, African, and Islamic unity has only resulted in destabilization. Qaddafi remarked in 1976 that atomic weapons will be like traditional ones, possessed by every state according to its potential. We will have our share of this new weapon. In 1987 Reuters quoted him as saying: The Arabs must possess the atom bomb to defend themselves, until their numbers reach one thousand million and they learn to desalinate water and until they liberate Palestine. 1 Qaddafi places little faith in his armed forces and dreads a repeat of the 1986 U.S. air strikes against Tripoli and Benghazi. Reflecting on the air strikes, Qaddafi has wistfully spoken of possessing a ballistic missile capability that could threaten New York.2 Few state leaders have expressed such single-minded determination to obtain chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. This determination, coupled with Qaddafi s long-term association with terrorism, has caused grave concern among other nations especially the United States and Israel.

4. pdf.gifLibya: A Future Arab Democracy [43 Pages, 0.6mb] – Libya has overthrown its long time dictator Muammar Gadhafi with the aid of both Western and Arab militaries. The United States acted under the authority of U.N. mandate 1973 as part of a broad coalition of both NATO and Arab Nations primarily in a supporting role. In Libya, as in its neighbors Egypt and Tunisia, the successful revolution has now established transitional governments who’s effectiveness is yet to be determined. Unlike other Arab nations, Libya possesses a combination of vast oil reserves, a small and balanced population, and a relatively high education level in its citizens. These factors all bode well for the establishment of a lasting representative government. If successful, Libya can not only secure its borders, and deny safe haven to terrorism as is the declared interest of the United States, but also serve as a positive economic and political influence on the region. Egypt remains the most significant and strategic nation in the region, but the benefits of a successful Libya and the relatively low cost at which it may be achieved should not be overlooked.

5. pdf.gifLibya: Unrest and US Policy [43 Pages, 0.7mb] – Over 40 years ago, Muammar al Qadhafi led a revolt against the Libyan monarchy in the name of nationalism, self-determination, and popular sovereignty. Opposition groups citing the same principles are now revolting against Qadhafi to bring an end to the authoritarian political system he has controlled in Libya for the last four decades. The Libyan government’s use of force against civilians and opposition forces seeking Qadhafi’s overthrow sparked an international outcry and led the United Nations Security Council to adopt Resolution 1973, which authorizes “all necessary measures” to protect Libyan civilians. The United States military is participating in Operation Unified Protector, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military operation to enforce the resolution. Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and other partner governments also are participating. Qadhafi and his supporters have described the uprising as a foreign and Islamist conspiracy and are attempting to outlast their opponents. Qadhafi remains defiant amid continuing coalition air strikes, and his forces continue to attack opposition-held areas. Some opposition figures have formed an Interim Transitional National Council (ITNC), which claims to represent all areas of the country. They seek foreign political recognition and material support.

6. pdf.gifA Nation at the Periphery: Libyan Regionalism Revisited [43 Pages, 0.6mb] – This article places the current Libyan conflict in historical perspective by focusing on the dynamics between the country’s two main regions (Tripolitania and Cyrenaica) during key moments of the 20th century. Particular attention is given to the different way each of the two regions approached the early period of Italian colonialism, from 1911 to 1923. The paper shows that historical relations between the two regions are characterized by both independence and interdependence and that this pattern is reemerging as the country transitions to a new era.

7. pdf.gifPersonnel Recovery: Strategic Importance and Impact, December 2012 [31 Pages, 0.6mb] – The breaking news from countless media venues in March 2011 was captivating and compelling: while taking part in coalition operations in Libya, a US Air Force F-15E, call sign Bolar 34 had gone down east of Benghazi. The two crew members had ejected into a chaotic battle between the despotic Libyan regime and opposition forces supported by the coalition. As our nation prayed for the two Airmen, President Barack Obama heard a briefing on the event and monitored the situation as rescue forces from a US Marine task force in the area and opposition ground forces quickly dashed in to recover both men. In many ways, this heartwarming story resembled accounts of other rescues performed in earlier conflicts. The saga of Bolar 34 joined the lore of rescue missions that grace the proud history of our nation.

ARAŞTIRMA DOSYASI : National Program Office – Project 908

Tattered American Flag

According to Wikipedia:

The National Program Office (NPO) was an office of the United States Government, established to ensure continuity of government in the event of a national disaster. The NPO was established by a secret executive order (National Security Decision Directive 55) signed on 14 September 1982 by President Ronald Reagan during the Cold War in preparation for a nuclear war, presumably with the Soviet Union.

The NPO plan was classified Top Secret, codeword Pegasus. It was also referred to as Project 908 (also known as “Nine Naught Eight”).

The only oversight was by a Project Pegasus committee chaired by then-Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush. The committee included The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (or his deputy), FBI Director William H. Webster, Attorney General Edwin Meese III and other top cabinet officials.

The action officer for the project was Marine Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, who then worked at the National Security Council under retired Marine Lieutenant Colonel Robert McFarlane.

The following are documents released about the NPO under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

pdf.gifCentral Intelligence Agency (CIA) Documents [7 Pages, 0.6MB]

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

pdf.gifFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Documents [906 Pages, 84MB] – These documents were released to me in November of 2014 and added to The Black Vault on March 28, 2015. According to the FBI’s response letter, there MAY have be additional records, which I requested. However, in June of 2015, I was informed that if there were additional records, they were pdf.gifdestroyed on 9/27/2009. Yet, another example, of lost history.

Office of the Assistance Secretary of Defense (OSD) / Joint Staff (JS)

pdf.gifOffice of the Assistance Secretary of Defense (OSD) / Joint Staff (JS) [6 Pages, 0.6MB] –

ARAŞTIRMA DOSYASI : 2015 Pre-Publication Review Policy Guide, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

2015-11-29_9-12-04

Excerpt from the document:

Under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Americans enjoy the right to free speech, which includes a right to publish. However, with regard to public employees, particularly Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) personnel, this right must comport with the FBI’s significant law enforcement and national security responsibilities and the FBI’s interest in maintaining effective and efficient operations.

Accordingly, in matters concerning the use of FBI information, it is necessary for the FBI to protect its information from disclosures that could endanger substantial government interests. The Prepublication Review Policy Guide sets forth program guidance relating to the disclosure of FBI information outside of official use and ensures adequate protections for
FBI personnel’ s constitutionally protected rights as citizens.

All information created and acquired by current and former employees and government contractor employees (hereinafter collectively referred to as “FBI personnel”) in connection with official FBI duties, as well as all official material to which FBI personnel have access, is the property of the United States. FBI personnel must surrender all materials in their possession that contain FBI information upon FBI demand or upon separation from the FBI. Unauthorized disclosure, misuse, or negligent handling of FBI information could adversely affect national security, place human life in jeopardy, result in the denial of due process, obstruct justice, prevent the FBI from effectively discharging
its responsibilities, or violate federal law.

Before disclosing FBI information outside of their official duty requirements, FBI personnel must submit the proposed disclosures to the Record Management Division’s (RMD) Record/Information Dissemination Section (RIDS) Prepublication Review Office for review. This prepublication review affords the FBI the opportunity to (1) assess whether the proposed disclosure includes prohibited information, (2) advise submitting FBI personnel of any such concerns, and (3) work with the submitter to resolve such concerns.

Download the Document

pdf.gif2015 Pre-Publication Review Policy Guide, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

ARAŞTIRMA DOSYASI : Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) NAS Daily Event Logs

CHICAGO, IL - MAY 19: A plane carrying Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti arrives at O'Hare International Airport before the start of the NATO summit on May 19, 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The two-day summit is expected to address the NATO troop withdrawals in Afghanistan, among other issues. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

Recently, I was contacted about some very important documents that exist within the FAA holdings, referred to as the NAS Daily Event Logs.

The FAA NAS Daily Events Log, prepared each day by the Federal Aviation Administration, provides a unique window into the odd and unusual events that occur within the National Airspace System.

The FAA Air Traffic Organization – office of System Operations Services prepares this document daily, comprising between five and ten pages per day, a wealth of information that include reportable events such as:

· Lost communications with aircraft, called NORDO ¬ no radio aircraft;
emergency beacon code 7600;

· Displaying or requesting unusual deviations from assigned routing;

· Change of destination while on an IFR flight plan – COD;

· Security Incidents ¬ terminal evacuation, bomb threats, breach of airport
perimeter, airport closure, airport security;

· Emergencies ¬ aircraft displaying emergency beacon code 7700 or reporting an
emergency;

· Hijack ¬ aircraft displaying emergency beacon code 7500 or reporting a
hijack;

· Aircraft experiencing a disturbance either on the ground or in flight;

· Special Interest Flights ¬ overflights by aircraft from certain nations;

· Special Penetration Air Defense Exercise ¬ SPADE:

· VIP movements;

· Special Speed Authorizations;

· Mechanical Problems;

· Laser Incidents;

· Intrusions into the National Capitol Region Control Center ¬ NCRCC

· And so on.

The number of incidents each day is large.

The NAS Daily Events Log covers the entire nation. Events are not separated out geographically.

Back in 2013, I began requesting these logs, and it was not until September of 2015 that my requests began being answered.

Below, you will find the available logs, thus far.

Declassified NAS Daily Logs

pdf.gifJanuary 1, 2013 – January 31, 2013 [192 Pages, 56.2MB]

ARAŞTIRMA DOSYASI : J. Robert Oppenheimer Personnel Hearings Transcripts

J. Robert Oppenheimer

In December 1953, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) suspended the security clearance of Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, and after a four-week, closed-door hearing in April and May 1954, formally revoked that clearance. In June 1954, the AEC released a redacted version of the hearing transcript, with security classified information deleted, published by the Government Printing Office (GPO) under the title, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: Transcript of Hearing before Personnel Security Board. Sixty years later, the Department of Energy has re-reviewed the original transcript and is making available to the public, for the first time, the full text of the transcript in its original form.

The transcript, produced in 19 volumes, is arranged in such a way that pages from which information was deleted in the published version are easy to locate with the deleted information readily identifiable. Volumes IIa, IIb, VIa, VIIa, IXa and IXb consist of pages from the original transcript that were segregated as “Classified Testimony.” Also included is a separate volume showing the location and text that was deleted from the 1954 published version. This volume gives the page number of both the 1954 GPO publication and the original transcript. In addition, the volume points out specifically what information was deleted.

Wikipedia also summarizes the security hearing:

The Oppenheimer security hearing was a 1954 proceeding by the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) that explored the background, actions and associations of J. Robert Oppenheimer, the American scientist who had headed the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II, where he played a key part in the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb. The hearing resulted in Oppenheimer’s Q clearance being revoked. This marked the end of his formal relationship with the government of the United States, and generated considerable controversy regarding whether the treatment of Oppenheimer was fair, or whether it was an expression of anti-CommunistMcCarthyism.

Doubts about Oppenheimer’s loyalty, dated back to the 1930s, when Oppenheimer was a member of numerous Communist front organizations, and was associated withCommunist Party USA members, including his wife and his brother. These associations were known to Army Counter-intelligence at the time he was made director of the Los Alamos Laboratory in 1942, and chairman of the influential General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1947. In this capacity Oppenheimer became involved bureaucratic conflict between the Army and Air Force over the types of nuclear weapons the country required, technical conflict between the scientists over the feasibility of the hydrogen bomb, and personal conflict with AEC commissioner Lewis Strauss.

The proceedings were initiated after Oppenheimer refused to voluntarily give up his security clearance while working as an atomic weapons consultant for the government, under a contract due to expire at the end of June 1954. Several of his colleagues testified at the hearings. As a result of the 2-to-1 decision of the hearing’s three judges, he was stripped of his security clearance one day before his consultant contract was due to expire. The panel found that he was loyal and discreet with atomic secrets, but did not recommend that his security clearance be reinstated.

The loss of his security clearance ended Oppenheimer’s role in government and policy. He became an academic exile, cut off from his former career and the world he had helped to create. The reputations of those who had testified against Oppenheimer were tarnished. The brief period when scientists were hailed as heroes uniquely qualified to comment on public policy was ended, and all scientists working within the government were on notice that dissent was no longer tolerated.

Following is a listing of the volumes of the hearings transcripts with links to PDF copies [3,428 Pages].

pdf.gif Volume I pdf.gifVolume IXa
pdf.gifVolume II pdf.gifVolume IXb
pdf.gifVolume IIa pdf.gifVolume X
pdf.gifVolume IIb pdf.gifVolume XI
pdf.gifVolume III pdf.gifVolume XII
pdf.gifVolume IV pdf.gifVolume XIII
pdf.gifVolume V pdf.gifVolume XIV
pdf.gifVolume VI pdf.gifVolume XV
pdf.gifVolume VIa pdf.gifVolume XVI
pdf.gifVolume VII pdf.gifVolume XVII
pdf.gifVolume VIIa pdf.gifVolume XVIII
pdf.gifVolume VIII pdf.gifVolume XIX
pdf.gifVolume IX pdf.gifRecord of Deletions

See Also

J. Robert Oppenheimer’s FBI File

ARAŞTIRMA DOSYASI : Army Doctrine Reference Publication : Terms and Military Symbols (Published December 7, 2015)

2015-12-15_10-50-11

Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) 1-02 constitutes approved Army doctrinal terminology and symbology for general use. It builds on the foundational doctrine established in Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 1-02.

The principal audience for ADRP 1-02 is all members of the profession of Arms. Commanders and staffs of Army headquarters serving as joint task force or multinational headquarters should also refer to applicable joint or multinational doctrine concerning the range of military operations and joint or multinational forces. Trainers and educators throughout the Army will also use this publication.

Commanders, staffs, and subordinates ensure their decisions and actions comply with applicable U.S., international, and, in some cases, host nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all echelons ensure their Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement.

ADRP 1-02 uses joint terms where applicable.

ADRP 1-02 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, and United States Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.

Download the Document

pdf.gifArmy Doctrine Reference Publication: Terms and Military Symbols (Published December 7, 2015) [350 Pages, 11.1 MB]